Sabtu, 23 Februari 2013

Doctors recall station fire victims, envision future of burn care

February 20, 2013
The authors reflect on the days surrounding the tragic Rhode Island Station Nightclub Fire and the ten years since that time and recently published a study examining the physical and emotional trauma of more than 100 survivors of the incident. Jeffrey C. Schneider is an HMS assistant professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Colleen M. Ryan is an HMS associate professor of surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Study in Massachusetts

Study in Massachusetts
The state of Massachusetts is one of the world’s great seats of learning, boasting world-class institutions including Harvard University andMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) – ranked numbers two and three respectively in the 2011/12 QS World University Rankings.
With state capital Boston known as the Cradle of Liberty due to its key role in the American Revolution, Massachusetts also holds a place in the center of US history.
One of the US’s oldest cities, Boston is a bustling and cosmopolitan urban center. With a strong traditional Irish influence (the Boston Celtics are one of the nation’s best-known basketball teams), progressive social laws and a sophisticated cultural scene, Boston’s cluster of historic universities has earned it an additional nickname, the ‘Athens of America’.
Study abroad in Boston or neighboring Cambridge (not the one in the UK!), and you will be following in the footsteps of some of the great minds of the last few centuries.
As a city which has developed with leading higher education institutions at its heart, it’s no surprise that Boston is known as one of the US’s most forward-thinking cities; politically and culturally, there’s lots going on here.
Thanks to its high-ranking universities, high quality of life and strong reputation among employers, Boston is also among the world's best cities for students. In the QS Best Student Cities 2012, it ranks third.
Beyond the state’s urban centre are varied rural delights, from Cape Cod’s beaches to the popular summer island resort Martha’s Vineyard.

Massachusetts: Fast facts

• Located in the north-east of the US; borders with Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and Atlantic Ocean
• Capital and largest city is Boston
• Famous people from Massachusetts include former president John F. Kennedy, poet Sylvia Plath and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson
• The state’s official dessert is the Boston cream pie – a round cake filled with custard or cream and topped with chocolate
• Harvard University has more than 15 million books; in the US, only the Library of Congress has more
• Boston has eight sister-cities: Barcelona, Spain; Kyoto, Japan; Strasbourg, France; Melbourne, Australia; Padua, Italy; Taipei, Taiwan; Hangzhou, China; and Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana
• Largest cities after Boston are Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy and Lynn

Top universities in Massachusetts

Massachusetts has so many excellent universities, it’s difficult to know where to start.
However, the obvious starting point is with Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), which need little introduction, and rank second and third respectively in the 2011/12 QS World University Rankings.
Also among the state’s highly esteemed institutions are Boston UniversityTufts UniversityBrandeis UniversityUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstBoston CollegeNortheastern University and Smith College - the last of which is for women only.
Some of these are private, some public, and their relative strengths vary depending on the subject. For example, MIT is ranked number one worldwide in the QS World University Rankings for chemical engineering, while Harvard tops the list for biological sciences.
One thing’s for sure: whatever you field of interest, Massachusetts has a top university to match.

A Series of Poses for Fitness, Inside and Out

In prisons across the country, inmates are doing yoga to improve their fitness and cope with the stress of overcrowded prison life.

Lighter Menus Appeal to Diners and Owners

Pressured by looming regulations, restaurants across the United States are shrinking portion sizes, a move that is paying off financially.

How antioxidants really protect against stroke and dementia

February 21, 2013
The protective power of antioxidants against stroke and dementia may have less to do with your total dietary intake of antioxidants and more to do with the specific foods that contribute to your antioxidant level, new research suggests. Elizabeth E. Devore, HMS instructor in medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, led the study

Why ‘Good Hair’ Matters

The first animal model of recent human evolution reveals that a mutation for thick hair does much more

What Is the Brain Activity Map?

A Q&A with George Church
February 20, 2013
George Church is the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Photo by Angela AlbertiGeorge Church is the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Photo by Angela AlbertiLast summer, six scientists proposed a project they compared in scope and ambition to the Human Genome Project: to map the activity of the human brain. In February, news media reported that the Obama administration plans to move forward with that effort, known as the Brain Activity Map.
One of those six scientists was George Church, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School and a core faculty member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Church, who is also a founding investigator of the Human Genome Project (HGP) and Personal Genome Project (PGP), sat down with Harvard Medicine News to discuss the roots, ambitions and challenges of the Brain Activity Map (BAM).
Q: What is a brain activity map?
The brain activity map is really a project to enable us to read from and write to individual neurons in complex networks. Because a lot of neural circuits are quite extensive and integrate many different parts of the brain, we want to be able to have both global and extremely local resolution. It’s analogous to the genome project, where at the beginning we had the ability to look at a piece of a gene in detail or the whole genome at low resolution, and we wanted to be able to do the whole genome at single base-pair resolution, since we needed both at once. And that’s what BAM is: a technology project to bring down the costs and improve the quality so that we can do this single-neuron resolution with arbitrarily large circuits.
Q: You say similar to the Human Genome Project. How will it be different?
Where I hope it will be different is that the Genome Project put off a lot of technology development. The technology that kicked in after the HGP was over brought down the price a millionfold. It would have been nice to have had that earlier. Also linking interpretation of genomes, environments and traits (as in PGP) got traction only near the end of HGP. So I think BAM is being designed with more flexibility and focus on technology and interpretability. Also, the Genome Project didn’t adequately embrace small science. I think enabling small labs to do amazing things might be more powerful than having a juggernaut of a large lab, or worse yet, a race among a few large labs.
Q: What’s the backstory of the Brain Activity Map?
A number of us, whether synthetic biologists, nanotechnologists or neuroscientists—most of us interdisciplinarians—met in September 2011 atChicheley Hall in the UK. We realized that we were converging on a vision very similar to that of the Genome Project in 1984 in Alta, Utah, where we weren’t quite sure, but we felt like the technology was ripe. And so six of us decided that we were aligned enough in this vision that we should start writing it up and organizing it.
Q: Why now?
Every now and then you’ll get a gap between technological advancements and their application. A number of technologies developed in synthetic biology, nanochemistry, optical fibers and so forth haven’t quite been integrated with each other and cross-fed into quantum leaps that could impact various aspects of neurobiology. Basically, it’s a recognition that a cluster of new technologies are overripe for combining with one another and applying to neuroscience.
Q: What question would you most like this project to answer?
We hope get fundamental understanding about emergent principles, things that you might see only when you have both depth and breadth. Insight into medical pathologies and day-to-day emotions, creativity, etc. I would also love to see huge improvements in cost, accuracy, comprehensiveness and low invasiveness. The latter set are engineering hurdles, rather than a particular discovery.
Q: Where do you foresee the greatest benefit to basic science, to clinical care and to society more broadly? Let’s start with basic science.
In basic science, this helps people do what they’re currently doing but better: more comprehensively, with better time resolution, and greater ability to test hypotheses involving increasingly complex circuits.
Q: And clinical?
Current methods can record and stimulate on the order of dozens of neurons or clusters of neurons simultaneously in a human brain. These technologies don’t always last a long time as implants and it’s hard to get fine measurements and control needed for everyday life.
The number of neurons that you can handle simultaneously has been creeping up very slowly. So, we’d like to accelerate that and lower the invasiveness, replacing electrodes with other means—optic fibers and/or synthetic biology.
Q: And to society?
Practical applications of the BAM project aren’t guaranteed, but if it is successful, BAM could extend well beyond neurobiology in the same sense that the Genome Project extended beyond genetics. A brain activity map could tell us about decision making, about normal behavior that isn’t pathological, about artificial intelligence. It could give us profound philosophical insights that could be troubling or awe-inspiring, like what it means to be conscious or even various levels of consciousness.
Q: And where do you anticipate the greatest challenges—technological, organizational and social/ethical?
First and foremost, safety has to be paramount, and that’s why I’m interested in talking about the human from the beginning. From an organizational perspective, I think we need to be careful not to create juggernauts that aren’t as nimble as small labs. We need to have feedback where small science benefits and is compared constantly to the big. We need to have ways to encourage cost-effective, out-of-the-box technologies that don’t necessitate a big company or a big institute.
Q: And technological?
The real technological challenge is to get people to think out of the box. To avoid complacency. If we get a tenfold improvement, people can’t just say ‘that’s great, let’s quit for a decade.’ They should look for the next tenfold, and the next. Also, how do you adjust priorities? If one group is working on optics and another one is working on synthetic biology, are they in competition? Are they synergistic? How do we optimize our interdisciplinary teams?
Q: How can Harvard contribute to the Brain Activity Map?
Boston is the genomics center of the world, so the organizational experience is here. In the HMS Department of NeurobiologyMike Greenberghas a world-class team that tackles many of the problems that will both inspire and benefit from any technology improvements. Harvard also has an extremely strong stem cell community. The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering is exactly the kind of interdisciplinary force that’s required here, where you have mechanical and biological engineers working side by side. And the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT has all kinds of diverse biomedical research that is really representative of the best small science—with the resources and efficiencies of a large-science context. And our affiliated hospitals are leaders in the translational research that will bring direct improvements for human health.

Weight and Mortality

Harvard researchers challenge results of obesity analysis
February 22, 2013
In January, when the Journal of the American Medical Associationpublished a meta-analysis of 100 studies that probed the relationship between body mass index and mortality—studies that found slightly overweight people have lower all-cause mortality than normal weight and underweight people—media around the globe trumpeted the news.
Many suggested that scientists had failed to understand something crucial about health, and questioned whether carrying extra weight might be healthier than being slim.
Walter Willett speaking at the panel discussion. Photo by HSPH Photographer Aubrey LaMedica.Walter Willett speaking at the panel discussion. Photo by HSPH Photographer Aubrey LaMedica.
“When I read the article I was somewhat taken aback. I wondered if I should send a ‘never mind’ note to all the people I’d taught about the risks of excess fat,” said Jeffrey S. Flier, dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Harvard University, Caroline Shields Walker Professor of Medicine at HMS and an authority on the biology of obesity and diabetes.
He wasn’t alone. Many others were perplexed by the findings gathered by Centers for Disease Control epidemiologist Katharine Flegal, which contradict a preponderance of research indicating that there is a direct correlation between the risk of mortality and being overweight once factors such as lower weight from cigarette smoking, chronic disease and wasting from frailty in the elderly are taken into account.
To clear up the confusion, Dean Flier worked with Julio Frenk, dean of the Harvard School of Public Health and the T & G Angelopoulos Professor of Public Health and International Development at HSPH and the Harvard Kennedy School, to convene a panel of experts at HSPH on Feb. 20 to discuss the findings with the HMS and HSPH communities. Flegal, a senior scientist at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics, was invited to the event, but did not attend.
Information in context
“We live in an era of near-ubiquitous access to information,” Dean Frenk said, “but the university has an important role to play in providing context and analysis to help people judge the value of information they are consuming, especially when there are equivocal or controversial findings.”
The panelists evaluated Flegal’s findings and pointed out a number of methodological errors in the study that they said resulted in the artificial appearance of a protective benefit in being overweight or mildly obese.  
“When something sounds too good to be true, it’s usually not true,” said Frank Hu, HSPH professor of nutrition and epidemiology and HMS professor of medicine.
Methodological errors
The selection criteria that Flegal used for her meta-analysis ruled out high-quality studies of 6 million people (more than twice as many as were represented in her analysis), said Hu. These studies, in aggregate, show that the highest survival rates are in normal weight people, not the overweight, Hu said.
The studies that Flegal did use included many samples of people who were chronically ill, current smokers and elderly, according to Hu. These factors are associated with weight loss and increased mortality.
In other words, people are not dying because they are slim, he said. They are slim because they are dying—of cancer or old age, for example. By doing a meta-analysis of studies that did not properly control for this bias, Flegal amplified the error in the original studies.
There is also no known biological basis for any protective effect from being overweight, the panelists said, citing studies that show a clear connection between being overweight and conditions such as hypertension and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for coronary heart disease, stroke and several cancers.
“Even as you get near the upper reaches of the normal weight range, you begin to see increases in chronic diseases,” said JoAnn Manson, chief of the Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, HMS Michael and Lee Bell Professor of Women’s Health, and HSPH professor of epidemiology. “It’s a clear gradient of increase. There is no evidence here of any global protective factor for being overweight.”
Flegal responded in an email to the criticisms by saying that she stands by her findings, which she noted had withstood review by the CDC, the National Institutes of Health and the editors and four of five reviewers atJAMA. She said that her team looked at 7,000 articles already in the medical literature.
“We explicitly included studies that were prospective studies of adults that looked at all-cause mortality with BMI measured or reported at baseline and that used the standard international categories of BMI … used by the World Health Organization and the U.S. government,” Flegal said.
Credibility of science
Panelists, however, expressed concern that much of the popular journalism and commentary about Flegal’s research could undermine the credibility of science, citing articles that show studies wavering between alternating conclusions, and opinion pieces suggesting that researchers have some conspiratorial interest in making people feel bad about their weight or lifestyle choices.
Translating the nuances of these and other critically important findings to the public, practitioners and policy makers is part of the core mission of a university, Dean Frenk said. 
“The role of the university is not to shy away from controversy but to embrace it. Protecting the credibility of science becomes very important,” Dean Frenk said.
Steven Heymsfield, the George A. Bray, Jr. Endowed Super Chair in Nutrition and executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, who co-authored a JAMA editorial that accompanied Flegal’s findings, noted that BMI alone could not provide a definitive assessment of the health of any given individual.
He said, “Misleading data on BMI and mortality conveys an erroneous message to the public and practitioners that being overweight does not have major consequences.”
Walter Willett, the Fredrick John Stare Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chair of the Department of Nutrition at HSPH, and HMS professor of medicine, said it is important for people to have correct information about the relationship between health and body weight.
“If you don’t have the right goal you are very unlikely to end up in the right place,” Willet said.
The panel was presented by the HSPH Department of Nutrition.

Finding Art In Medicine

A new group at HMS is exploring the more personal aspects of illness and the healing power of the arts, for both patient and provider.

To Go: Plastic-Foam Containers, if the Mayor Gets His Way

Michael R. Bloomberg, the New York mayor who has moved to regulate fatty foods, big sodas and smoking outdoors, will propose a ban on a derided polymer.

Britain Says Equine Drug May Have Entered Food Chain

British officials said on Thursday that a banned substance commonly used in horses and potentially harmful to humans may have entered the food chain in small quantities.

Public Recreation Centers Looking to Stem Exodus

New York City’s parks department lost 45 percent of its members after it doubled its prices a year and a half ago, losing about $200,000 instead of making $4 million in new revenue.

When to Retire a Running Shoe

Every runner has an opinion, but the facts to support them are few.

Charges Filed in Peanut Salmonella Case

The charges against the former owner and several employees of the Peanut Corporation of America stemmed from an investigation into a deadly salmonella outbreak in 2009.

In El Paso County, Dairy Farming Ban Takes a Heavy Toll

Now that Texas has regained its bovine tuberculosis-free status, Representative Mary González has introduced legislation to allow dairy farms back in El Paso and a sliver of Hudspeth County.

Salley Offers a Healthy Assist

John Salley, a 6-foot-11 power forward and center, became a vegetarian in January 1991 after he felt he had to make changes in his lifestyle.

What Price Fitness? You Get to Make the Call

Adam Rosante has introduced a pay-what-you-can approach to fitness classes in New York.

Children in U.S. Are Eating Fewer Calories, Study Finds

Health experts said the findings offered an encouraging sign that the obesity epidemic might be easing, but cautioned that the magnitude of the decline was small.

Winter Tomato Quiche

Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times
Canned tomatoes can be used in the off season for a delicious dinner.

The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food

Grant Cornett for The New York Times
Inside the hyperengineered, savagely marketed, addiction-creating battle for American “stomach share.”

Young Drinkers Prefer Beer

A nationwide survey found that the favorite alcoholic beverage of underage drinkers is beer, and their favorite beer is Budweiser.

Dangers of Too Much Calcium

New research suggests that older women who take large calcium supplements may be at increased risk of heart disease and death.

Twins Don't Need C-Sections

A new study of 2,800 women showed that outcomes in successful births, births with serious medical problems and deaths were similar for both vaginal and Caesarean section deliveries.

Vitamin Labels May Be Wrong

The amounts of vitamin D present in supplements sold over the counter often bear little resemblance to the descriptions on the bottle labels, a new study concludes.

DNA Test for Rare Disorders Becomes More Routine

As the cost of genetic sequencing plunges, more people, especially parents, are using it to find disease-causing mutations.

Overdose Deaths Continue to Climb

Drug overdose deaths in the United States increased for the 11th consecutive year in 2010, rising 3.6 percent from 2009, federal officials reported Tuesday.

Flu Shot Less Effective for the Elderly

This year’s flu shot is not protecting older people very well from the harshest strain this season, proving only 9 percent effective, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday.

Fast New Test Could Find Leprosy Before Damage Is Lasting

A simple, cheap screening offers the hope of diagnosing and curing leprosy, even in the poorest places, before victims are permanently disabled or disfigured.

Children in U.S. Are Eating Fewer Calories, Study Finds

Health experts said the findings offered an encouraging sign that the obesity epidemic might be easing, but cautioned that the magnitude of the decline was small.

Survey Finds That Fish Are Often Not What Label Says

A new study of fish bought and genetically tested in 12 metropolitan areas in the United States found that about one-third of the samples were mislabeled.

California: Tuberculosis Outbreak Among Homeless

Los Angeles County officials have asked for federal assistance in analyzing and containing an outbreak of tuberculosis among the city’s homeless population.

Deep-brain stimulation can be started earlier to ease Parkinson’s symptoms

A pacemaker-like device that stimulates the brain can help control some of the muscular problems brought on by Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative problem in America. A report in tomorrow’s New England Journal of Medicine may prompt doctors to recommend its use sooner rather than later. For more than a decade, deep-brain stimulation has been used to help control Parkinson’s symptoms. It involves placing a tiny wire called a lead (pronounced leed) in the part of the brain that controls movement and a matchbook-sized stimulator under the skin below the collarbone. The lead and stimulator are connected to each other by a second wire that runs under the skin of the shoulder, neck, and head. The device emits small pulses of electricity that help coordinate movement. Deep-brain stimulation traditionally isn’t used until a person has lived with Parkinson’s for a decade or more. The new report in the NEJM will give doctors more leeway to use this therapy earlier in people with Parkinson’s.

Drone Pilots Are Found to Get Stress Disorders Much as Those in Combat Do

Capt. Richard Koll, left, and Airman First Class Mike Eulo monitored a drone aircraft after launching it in Iraq.
U.S. Air Force/Master Sgt. Steve Horton
Capt. Richard Koll, left, and Airman First Class Mike Eulo monitored a drone aircraft after launching it in Iraq.
A Defense Department study, the first of its kind, showed that pilots of drone aircraft experience mental health problems much like those of pilots who are deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan.

Can you become addicted to chocolate?

The term “chocoholic,” usually said with a smile, actually nods to a potentially serious question: can a person become addicted to food? There are three essential components of addiction: intense craving, loss of control over the object of that craving, and continued use or engagement despite bad consequences. People can exhibit all three of these in their relationships with food. It’s most common with foods that deliver a lot of sugar and fat — like chocolate — because they trigger reward pathways in the brain. In some animal studies, restricting these foods induced a stress-like response consistent with the “withdrawal” response seen in addiction. Much of the scientific discussion about food addiction has been sparked by the epidemic of obesity sweeping the U.S. and many other countries. Many people who are overweight crave food, lose control over eating, and experience negative health effects that should, but don’t, serve as a deterrent. The influence of stress on eating provides another link between food and addictive behavior.

Alcohol: a heart disease-cancer balancing act

The message that drinking a little alcohol is good for the heart has gotten plenty of attention. A new study linking alcohol with increased risk of dying from various cancers may temper that message a bit. About 4% of cancer deaths worldwide are related to alcohol use. A new study shows the in the United States, alcohol causes 3.5% of cancer deaths, or about 20,000 cancer-related deaths each year. The most common alcohol-related cancers were mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer in men, and breast cancer in women. At the same time, drinking alcohol in moderation (no more than two alcoholic drinks a day for men and no more than one a day for women) has been linked to lower rates of heart disease and deaths related to it. Advances in genetics may one day let us predict more accurately who can use alcohol in moderation and who should avoid it completely. Until then, it’s best to personally weigh the benefits and risks, ideally with a trusted health care provider.

Going gluten-free just because? Here’s what you need to know

After being confined to health-food stores for years, gluten-free foods have become the latest food fad. Supermarket aisles abound with products proudly labeled “Gluten free,” and many restaurants now offer gluten-free options. For people who can’t tolerate gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley, this abundance is a blessing. But lately it’s become hip to go gluten-free. Based on little or no evidence other than testimonials in the media, people have been switching to gluten-free diets to lose weight, boost energy, treat autism, or generally feel healthier. People who are sensitive to gluten may feel better doing this, but most won’t get a significant benefit from the practice—and will pay more for food because gluten-free products are expensive. It’s important to know that it can set you up for nutritional deficiencies such as a dearth of B vitamins and fiber.

7 common causes of forgetfulness

Memory slips are aggravating, frustrating, and sometimes worrisome. When they happen more than they should, they can trigger fears of looming dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. But as I write in this month’s Harvard Men’s Health Watch, there are many mundane—and treatable—causes of forgetfulness. Here are seven common ones.
Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep is perhaps the greatest unappreciated cause of memory slips. Too little restful sleep can also lead to mood changes and anxiety, which in turn contribute to problems with memory.
Medications. Tranquilizers, antidepressants, some blood pressure drugs, and other medications can affect memory, usually by causing sedation or confusion. That can make it difficult to pay close attention to new things. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you suspect that a new medication is taking the edge off your memory. As shown in the table below, alternatives are usually available.
Medications that may affect memory and possible substitutes
If you take these drugs…… ask about switching to one of these drugs
paroxetine (Paxil)another antidepressant such as fluoxetine (Prozac) or sertraline (Zoloft), or a different type of antidepressant such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) or venlafaxine (Effexor)
cimetidine (Tagamet)a different type of heartburn drug, such as lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), or esomeprazole (Nexium)
oxybutynin (Ditropan) or tolterodine (Detrol, Detrusitol)other medications for an overactive bladder, such as trospium (Sanctura), solifenacin (Vesicare), or darifenacin (Enablex)
amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), or nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor)another type of medication, depending on why your doctor has prescribed a tricyclic antidepressant (neuropathic pain, depression, etc.)
captopril (Capoten)a different type of ACE inhibitor, such as enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril
cold or allergy medication containing brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, or diphenhydramineloratadine (Claritin) or other non-sedating antihistamine
(Adapted from Improving Memory: Understanding age-related memory loss, a Harvard Medical School Special Health Report)
Underactive thyroid. A faltering thyroid can affect memory (as well as disturb sleep and cause depression, both of which contribute to memory slips). A simple blood test can tell if your thyroid is doing its job properly.
Alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can interfere with short-term memory, even after the effects of alcohol have worn off. Although “too much” varies from person to person, it’s best to stick with the recommendation of no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one a day for women. One drink is generally defined as 1.5 ounces (1 shot glass) of 80-proof spirits, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer.
Stress and anxiety. Anything that makes it harder to concentrate and lock in new information and skills can lead to memory problems. Stress and anxiety fill the bill. Both can interfere with attention and block the formation of new memories or the retrieval of old ones.
Depression. Common signs of depression include a stifling sadness, lack of drive, and lessening of pleasure in things you ordinarily enjoy. Forgetfulness can also be a sign of depression—or a consequence of it.
If memory lapses are bugging you, it’s worth a conversation with your doctor to see if any reversible causes are at the root of the problem. Something like getting more sleep, switching a medication, or a stress reduction program could get your memory back on track.

Teknik Menyamarkan Kantung Mata Panda

Melza Julia Habsary di Adorable Day ♚ - 4 minggu yang lalu
Panda memang lucu, tapi jika Anda mendapat julukan si mata panda, itu sama sekali tidak menggemaskan. Julukan mata panda memang ditujukan untuk si pemilik kantong mata berwarna hitam di daerah bawah mata. Sebagian orang memang memiliki masalah ini, apalagi jika tubuh sangat lelah dan kurang tidur, maka si mata panda akan menghampiri. Gampang-gampang susah melakukan perawatan di daerah bawah mata, mengingat daerah ini sangat sensitif (daerah ini selalu dihindari saat memakai masker wajah). Karena itulah, perawatan dengan bahan alami lebih dianjurkan. Selain menggunakan kantong teh, ... lainnya »

Trend Rambut Wanita 2013

Melza Julia Habsary di Adorable Day ♚ - 4 minggu yang lalu
Tahun baru, rambutnya juga baru dong tentunya. Nah, kali ini apa yang akan menjadi trend 2013 nanti? Mari berharap sesuatu yang manis... Ternyata pada 2013 nanti, aksen kepang akan semakin hip. Warna ombre dengan gaya rambut pendek juga diminati. Hairstyle wanita menjadi semakin berani. * Gaya rambut pendek * ** * Courtesy indulgy | hairstylecrew | pinterest * Potongan pixie cut, short cut dan angled bobs akan disempurnakan dengan warna ombre. Memberikan kesan yang tegas, bebas, dan wanita yang modern. Tentunya gaya rambut kali ini membuat wanita lebih terlihat enerjik dan muda, m... lainnya »

10 makanan termahal didunia

Melza Julia Habsary di Adorable Day ♚ - 4 minggu yang lalu
*Makanan penutup* atau dessert biasa di hidangkan setelah kamu menikmati menu utama di sebuah restoran mewah. Bagi kamu yang memiliki cukup banyak uang mungkin bisa menikmati makan penutup yang harganya sangat mahal nah berikut ini ada 10 Makanan Penutup Paling Mahal di Dunia kamu mau tahu apa aja itu dan mau mencobanya simak berikut ini. *10. Cokelat Noka, Koleksi Vintage* Hidangan ini menjadi menu penutup paling mahal didunia menduduki peringkat paling bungsu. Cokelat ini dijual dengan harga $ 854 per pon atau setara Rp 7,8 juta per pon. Sebuah restoran melayani para pelanggan... lainnya »

Hebat - Tangga

Melza Julia Habsary di Adorable Day ♚ - 4 minggu yang lalu
Bagaikan tetesan hujan di batasnya kemarau Berikan kesejukan yg lama tak kunjung datang Menghapus dahaga jiwaku akan cinta sejati tak pernah kurasakan damai sedamai bersamamu tak ada yg bisa yg mungkin kan mengganti tempatmu karena ketulusan cintamu ku merasa teristimewa hanya hanya karena, karena cinta kau beri padaku sepenuhnya buatku selalu merasa berarti Karena kau yang membuatku makin kuat Jantungku bergerak cepat Semua yg berat bisa lewat Inikah cinta yg sejati Tak akan kita kan lepas dan jatuh sekarang Cinta, sang cinta, kita kan terus mencinta Repeat reff * betapa sempu... lainnya »